Pavlick and Kwiatkowski: Inherent Disagreements in Human Textual Inferences
Pavlick, Ellie, and Tom Kwiatkowski. “Inherent Disagreements in Human Textual Inferences.” Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics 7 (November 2019): 677–94. https://doi.org/10.1162/tacl%5Fa%5F00293.
- Talks about how human annotations and disagreements from those are not derived from statistical noise
- More context does not necessarily mean more agreement, once the input reaches sentence/passage, disagreements hold relatively steady
- We assume what people write is what they mean, but actually there’s a pretty big gap between what people mean <-> what they write <-> what they interpret <-> what they infer. NLP models currently only model the 2nd and 3rd arrows.
- punted on precise definitions of “real world” and rather tried to have their models approximate “what humans do”
- Uses a combination of RTE2, SNLI, MNLI, JOCI, and DNC
- RTE2 - premises/hypothesis combos
- SNLI - premises from image captions, hypoteshis from existing NLI dataets paired with hypotehsis that were automatically generated
- MNLI - Same as SNLI but with a range of text genres
- JOCI - “commen sense” inferences
- DNC - mostly naturally occuring premises paired with template generated hypothesis
- They had 500 workers complete and rank the response on a slider
- Continous scale not always the best, they had to do some z-score normalization in order for all the data to make sense
Ultimately wanted to judge how much “noise” exists in the annotation process
If there is a single truth, then the the “noise” should be generalizable with a single gaussian distribution
If there are “multiple” truths, then a gaussian mixture model should be correct
Assumption: if a single truth exists, the GMM woul be the exact same as the gaussian
Model chooses to fit towards the GMM than the gaussian
Example: is the word “swat” forceful? Is “confess that” factive?
In the first section, they note that the annotations can be modeled by the GMM, implying that humans believe there are multiple “truths”
- NLP models currently only believe there is one truth to model
- Sampled sentences from wikipedia, and considered each sentence to be a premise, and generated a hyptothesis by replacing the corresponding a word from the premise with a substiute word, where the substitue word is either a hypernym/hyponym, antonym, or co-hyponym
- Collected ratings at 3 levels
- Disagreements among raters actually increase when more context is shown
- Definitely some confounds abound
- Is this a problem at all?
- what if the underlying distributions already reflect the distributions observed in human judgements, and the models already adaquetely capture that with softmax?
- since nli is usually treated as a classification, they discretize (after experimenting with z-normalied human scores) by mapping into different bins
- They used a pretrained bert and fine tuned it on the labels
- Attempted to see how well bert captured the underlying multi-modal distribution with a softmax
found that the softmax is a poor approximation